[Devel,rh7,1/4] ms/kernel: add kcov code coverage

Submitted by Andrey Ryabinin on Oct. 14, 2016, 12:01 p.m.

Details

Message ID 1476446489-4316-1-git-send-email-aryabinin@virtuozzo.com
State New
Series "Series without cover letter"
Headers show

Commit Message

Andrey Ryabinin Oct. 14, 2016, 12:01 p.m.
From: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>

kcov provides code coverage collection for coverage-guided fuzzing
(randomized testing).  Coverage-guided fuzzing is a testing technique
that uses coverage feedback to determine new interesting inputs to a
system.  A notable user-space example is AFL
(http://lcamtuf.coredump.cx/afl/).  However, this technique is not
widely used for kernel testing due to missing compiler and kernel
support.

kcov does not aim to collect as much coverage as possible.  It aims to
collect more or less stable coverage that is function of syscall inputs.
To achieve this goal it does not collect coverage in soft/hard
interrupts and instrumentation of some inherently non-deterministic or
non-interesting parts of kernel is disbled (e.g.  scheduler, locking).

Currently there is a single coverage collection mode (tracing), but the
API anticipates additional collection modes.  Initially I also
implemented a second mode which exposes coverage in a fixed-size hash
table of counters (what Quentin used in his original patch).  I've
dropped the second mode for simplicity.

This patch adds the necessary support on kernel side.  The complimentary
compiler support was added in gcc revision 231296.

We've used this support to build syzkaller system call fuzzer, which has
found 90 kernel bugs in just 2 months:

  https://github.com/google/syzkaller/wiki/Found-Bugs

We've also found 30+ bugs in our internal systems with syzkaller.
Another (yet unexplored) direction where kcov coverage would greatly
help is more traditional "blob mutation".  For example, mounting a
random blob as a filesystem, or receiving a random blob over wire.

Why not gcov.  Typical fuzzing loop looks as follows: (1) reset
coverage, (2) execute a bit of code, (3) collect coverage, repeat.  A
typical coverage can be just a dozen of basic blocks (e.g.  an invalid
input).  In such context gcov becomes prohibitively expensive as
reset/collect coverage steps depend on total number of basic
blocks/edges in program (in case of kernel it is about 2M).  Cost of
kcov depends only on number of executed basic blocks/edges.  On top of
that, kernel requires per-thread coverage because there are always
background threads and unrelated processes that also produce coverage.
With inlined gcov instrumentation per-thread coverage is not possible.

kcov exposes kernel PCs and control flow to user-space which is
insecure.  But debugfs should not be mapped as user accessible.

Based on a patch by Quentin Casasnovas.

[akpm@linux-foundation.org: make task_struct.kcov_mode have type `enum kcov_mode']
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: unbreak allmodconfig]
[akpm@linux-foundation.org: follow x86 Makefile layout standards]
Signed-off-by: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: syzkaller <syzkaller@googlegroups.com>
Cc: Vegard Nossum <vegard.nossum@oracle.com>
Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
Cc: Tavis Ormandy <taviso@google.com>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: Quentin Casasnovas <quentin.casasnovas@oracle.com>
Cc: Kostya Serebryany <kcc@google.com>
Cc: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Cc: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@google.com>
Cc: Bjorn Helgaas <bhelgaas@google.com>
Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com>
Cc: David Drysdale <drysdale@google.com>
Cc: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org>
Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com>
Cc: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name>
Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>

(cherry-picked from 5c9a8750a6409c63a0f01d51a9024861022f6593)
Signed-off-by: Andrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
---
 Documentation/kcov.txt            | 111 +++++++++++++++
 Makefile                          |  11 +-
 arch/x86/Kconfig                  |   1 +
 arch/x86/boot/Makefile            |   7 +
 arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile |   3 +
 arch/x86/kernel/Makefile          |   6 +
 arch/x86/kernel/apic/Makefile     |   4 +
 arch/x86/kernel/cpu/Makefile      |   4 +
 arch/x86/lib/Makefile             |   3 +
 arch/x86/mm/Makefile              |   3 +
 arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile     |   3 +
 arch/x86/vdso/Makefile            |   1 +
 include/linux/sched.h             |  11 ++
 kernel/Makefile                   |  12 ++
 kernel/exit.c                     |   2 +
 kernel/fork.c                     |   3 +
 kernel/kcov.c                     | 274 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 kernel/sched/Makefile             |   4 +
 lib/Kconfig.debug                 |  21 +++
 lib/Makefile                      |  12 ++
 mm/Makefile                       |  15 +++
 mm/kasan/Makefile                 |   2 +
 scripts/Makefile.lib              |   6 +
 23 files changed, 518 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/kcov.txt
 create mode 100644 kernel/kcov.c

Patch hide | download patch | download mbox

diff --git a/Documentation/kcov.txt b/Documentation/kcov.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..779ff4a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/kcov.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,111 @@ 
+kcov: code coverage for fuzzing
+===============================
+
+kcov exposes kernel code coverage information in a form suitable for coverage-
+guided fuzzing (randomized testing). Coverage data of a running kernel is
+exported via the "kcov" debugfs file. Coverage collection is enabled on a task
+basis, and thus it can capture precise coverage of a single system call.
+
+Note that kcov does not aim to collect as much coverage as possible. It aims
+to collect more or less stable coverage that is function of syscall inputs.
+To achieve this goal it does not collect coverage in soft/hard interrupts
+and instrumentation of some inherently non-deterministic parts of kernel is
+disbled (e.g. scheduler, locking).
+
+Usage:
+======
+
+Configure kernel with:
+
+        CONFIG_KCOV=y
+
+CONFIG_KCOV requires gcc built on revision 231296 or later.
+Profiling data will only become accessible once debugfs has been mounted:
+
+        mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug
+
+The following program demonstrates kcov usage from within a test program:
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stddef.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <sys/mman.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+
+#define KCOV_INIT_TRACE			_IOR('c', 1, unsigned long)
+#define KCOV_ENABLE			_IO('c', 100)
+#define KCOV_DISABLE			_IO('c', 101)
+#define COVER_SIZE			(64<<10)
+
+int main(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	int fd;
+	unsigned long *cover, n, i;
+
+	/* A single fd descriptor allows coverage collection on a single
+	 * thread.
+	 */
+	fd = open("/sys/kernel/debug/kcov", O_RDWR);
+	if (fd == -1)
+		perror("open"), exit(1);
+	/* Setup trace mode and trace size. */
+	if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_INIT_TRACE, COVER_SIZE))
+		perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
+	/* Mmap buffer shared between kernel- and user-space. */
+	cover = (unsigned long*)mmap(NULL, COVER_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned long),
+				     PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED, fd, 0);
+	if ((void*)cover == MAP_FAILED)
+		perror("mmap"), exit(1);
+	/* Enable coverage collection on the current thread. */
+	if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_ENABLE, 0))
+		perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
+	/* Reset coverage from the tail of the ioctl() call. */
+	__atomic_store_n(&cover[0], 0, __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
+	/* That's the target syscal call. */
+	read(-1, NULL, 0);
+	/* Read number of PCs collected. */
+	n = __atomic_load_n(&cover[0], __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
+	for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
+		printf("0x%lx\n", cover[i + 1]);
+	/* Disable coverage collection for the current thread. After this call
+	 * coverage can be enabled for a different thread.
+	 */
+	if (ioctl(fd, KCOV_DISABLE, 0))
+		perror("ioctl"), exit(1);
+	/* Free resources. */
+	if (munmap(cover, COVER_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned long)))
+		perror("munmap"), exit(1);
+	if (close(fd))
+		perror("close"), exit(1);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+After piping through addr2line output of the program looks as follows:
+
+SyS_read
+fs/read_write.c:562
+__fdget_pos
+fs/file.c:774
+__fget_light
+fs/file.c:746
+__fget_light
+fs/file.c:750
+__fget_light
+fs/file.c:760
+__fdget_pos
+fs/file.c:784
+SyS_read
+fs/read_write.c:562
+
+If a program needs to collect coverage from several threads (independently),
+it needs to open /sys/kernel/debug/kcov in each thread separately.
+
+The interface is fine-grained to allow efficient forking of test processes.
+That is, a parent process opens /sys/kernel/debug/kcov, enables trace mode,
+mmaps coverage buffer and then forks child processes in a loop. Child processes
+only need to enable coverage (disable happens automatically on thread end).
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index 73d3277..7ce0b6b 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -370,6 +370,7 @@  LDFLAGS_MODULE  =
 CFLAGS_KERNEL	=
 AFLAGS_KERNEL	=
 CFLAGS_GCOV	= -fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage
+CFLAGS_KCOV	= -fsanitize-coverage=trace-pc
 
 
 # Use USERINCLUDE when you must reference the UAPI directories only.
@@ -429,7 +430,7 @@  export MAKE AWK GENKSYMS INSTALLKERNEL PERL UTS_MACHINE
 export HOSTCXX HOSTCXXFLAGS LDFLAGS_MODULE CHECK CHECKFLAGS
 
 export KBUILD_CPPFLAGS NOSTDINC_FLAGS LINUXINCLUDE OBJCOPYFLAGS LDFLAGS
-export KBUILD_CFLAGS CFLAGS_KERNEL CFLAGS_MODULE CFLAGS_GCOV CFLAGS_KASAN
+export KBUILD_CFLAGS CFLAGS_KERNEL CFLAGS_MODULE CFLAGS_GCOV CFLAGS_KASAN CFLAGS_KCOV
 export KBUILD_AFLAGS AFLAGS_KERNEL AFLAGS_MODULE
 export KBUILD_AFLAGS_MODULE KBUILD_CFLAGS_MODULE KBUILD_LDFLAGS_MODULE
 export KBUILD_AFLAGS_KERNEL KBUILD_CFLAGS_KERNEL
@@ -649,6 +650,14 @@  else
 endif
 KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(stackp-flag)
 
+ifdef CONFIG_KCOV
+  ifeq ($(call cc-option, $(CFLAGS_KCOV)),)
+    $(warning Cannot use CONFIG_KCOV: \
+             -fsanitize-coverage=trace-pc is not supported by compiler)
+    CFLAGS_KCOV =
+  endif
+endif
+
 # This warning generated too much noise in a regular build.
 # Use make W=1 to enable this warning (see scripts/Makefile.build)
 KBUILD_CFLAGS += $(call cc-disable-warning, unused-but-set-variable)
diff --git a/arch/x86/Kconfig b/arch/x86/Kconfig
index 23be104..793708f4 100644
--- a/arch/x86/Kconfig
+++ b/arch/x86/Kconfig
@@ -79,6 +79,7 @@  config X86
 	select HAVE_CMPXCHG_DOUBLE
 	select HAVE_ARCH_KMEMCHECK
 	select HAVE_ARCH_KASAN if X86_64 && SPARSEMEM_VMEMMAP
+	select ARCH_HAS_KCOV			if X86_64
 	select HAVE_USER_RETURN_NOTIFIER
 	select ARCH_BINFMT_ELF_RANDOMIZE_PIE
 	select HAVE_ARCH_JUMP_LABEL
diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/Makefile b/arch/x86/boot/Makefile
index 338421c..4374546 100644
--- a/arch/x86/boot/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/boot/Makefile
@@ -9,6 +9,13 @@ 
 # Changed by many, many contributors over the years.
 #
 
+# Kernel does not boot with kcov instrumentation here.
+# One of the problems observed was insertion of __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc()
+# callback into middle of per-cpu data enabling code. Thus the callback observed
+# inconsistent state and crashed. We are interested mostly in syscall coverage,
+# so boot code is not interesting anyway.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT		:= n
+
 # If you want to preset the SVGA mode, uncomment the next line and
 # set SVGA_MODE to whatever number you want.
 # Set it to -DSVGA_MODE=NORMAL_VGA if you just want the EGA/VGA mode.
diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile
index 3e40e93..090ae20 100644
--- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/Makefile
@@ -19,6 +19,9 @@  KBUILD_AFLAGS  := $(KBUILD_CFLAGS) -D__ASSEMBLY__
 GCOV_PROFILE := n
 KASAN_SANITIZE := n
 
+# Prevents link failures: __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc() is not linked in.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT		:= n
+
 LDFLAGS := -m elf_$(UTS_MACHINE)
 LDFLAGS_vmlinux := -T
 
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/Makefile b/arch/x86/kernel/Makefile
index 6ef2f77..410ab0f 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/Makefile
@@ -20,6 +20,12 @@  KASAN_SANITIZE_head$(BITS).o := n
 KASAN_SANITIZE_dumpstack.o := n
 KASAN_SANITIZE_dumpstack_$(BITS).o := n
 
+# If instrumentation of this dir is enabled, boot hangs during first second.
+# Probably could be more selective here, but note that files related to irqs,
+# boot, dumpstack/stacktrace, etc are either non-interesting or can lead to
+# non-deterministic coverage.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT		:= n
+
 CFLAGS_irq.o := -I$(src)/../include/asm/trace
 
 obj-y			:= process_$(BITS).o signal.o entry_$(BITS).o
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/apic/Makefile b/arch/x86/kernel/apic/Makefile
index 7b600c6..b4149fa 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/apic/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/apic/Makefile
@@ -2,6 +2,10 @@ 
 # Makefile for local APIC drivers and for the IO-APIC code
 #
 
+# Leads to non-deterministic coverage that is not a function of syscall inputs.
+# In particualr, smp_apic_timer_interrupt() is called in random places.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT		:= n
+
 obj-$(CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC)	+= apic.o apic_noop.o ipi.o
 obj-y				+= hw_nmi.o
 
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/Makefile b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/Makefile
index 9edaa8c..a5959f0 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/Makefile
@@ -8,6 +8,10 @@  CFLAGS_REMOVE_common.o = -pg
 CFLAGS_REMOVE_perf_event.o = -pg
 endif
 
+# If these files are instrumented, boot hangs during the first second.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_common.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_perf_event.o := n
+
 # Make sure load_percpu_segment has no stackprotector
 nostackp := $(call cc-option, -fno-stack-protector)
 CFLAGS_common.o		:= $(nostackp)
diff --git a/arch/x86/lib/Makefile b/arch/x86/lib/Makefile
index 99c2d88..e3b962f 100644
--- a/arch/x86/lib/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/lib/Makefile
@@ -2,6 +2,9 @@ 
 # Makefile for x86 specific library files.
 #
 
+# Produces uninteresting flaky coverage.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_delay.o	:= n
+
 inat_tables_script = $(srctree)/arch/x86/tools/gen-insn-attr-x86.awk
 inat_tables_maps = $(srctree)/arch/x86/lib/x86-opcode-map.txt
 quiet_cmd_inat_tables = GEN     $@
diff --git a/arch/x86/mm/Makefile b/arch/x86/mm/Makefile
index ac9ca65..e628b0e 100644
--- a/arch/x86/mm/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/mm/Makefile
@@ -1,3 +1,6 @@ 
+# Kernel does not boot with instrumentation of tlb.c.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_tlb.o	:= n
+
 obj-y	:=  init.o init_$(BITS).o fault.o ioremap.o extable.o pageattr.o mmap.o \
 	    pat.o pgtable.o physaddr.o gup.o setup_nx.o
 
diff --git a/arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile b/arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile
index 71c2c94..c21a62a 100644
--- a/arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/realmode/rm/Makefile
@@ -8,6 +8,9 @@ 
 #
 KASAN_SANITIZE := n
 
+# Prevents link failures: __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc() is not linked in.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT		:= n
+
 always := realmode.bin realmode.relocs
 
 wakeup-objs	:= wakeup_asm.o wakemain.o video-mode.o
diff --git a/arch/x86/vdso/Makefile b/arch/x86/vdso/Makefile
index cbe63eb..4e66bd0 100644
--- a/arch/x86/vdso/Makefile
+++ b/arch/x86/vdso/Makefile
@@ -185,6 +185,7 @@  quiet_cmd_vdso = VDSO    $@
 VDSO_LDFLAGS = -fPIC -shared $(call cc-ldoption, -Wl$(comma)--hash-style=sysv)
 GCOV_PROFILE := n
 KASAN_SANITIZE := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
 
 #
 # Install the unstripped copy of vdso*.so listed in $(vdso-install-y).
diff --git a/include/linux/sched.h b/include/linux/sched.h
index ab5cfed..8b54c12 100644
--- a/include/linux/sched.h
+++ b/include/linux/sched.h
@@ -46,6 +46,7 @@  struct sched_param {
 #include <linux/resource.h>
 #include <linux/timer.h>
 #include <linux/hrtimer.h>
+#include <linux/kcov.h>
 #include <linux/task_io_accounting.h>
 #include <linux/latencytop.h>
 #include <linux/cred.h>
@@ -1556,6 +1557,16 @@  struct task_struct {
 	/* bitmask and counter of trace recursion */
 	unsigned long trace_recursion;
 #endif /* CONFIG_TRACING */
+#ifdef CONFIG_KCOV
+	/* Coverage collection mode enabled for this task (0 if disabled). */
+	enum kcov_mode kcov_mode;
+	/* Size of the kcov_area. */
+	unsigned	kcov_size;
+	/* Buffer for coverage collection. */
+	void		*kcov_area;
+	/* kcov desciptor wired with this task or NULL. */
+	struct kcov	*kcov;
+#endif
 #ifdef CONFIG_BEANCOUNTERS
 	struct task_beancounter task_bc;
 #endif
diff --git a/kernel/Makefile b/kernel/Makefile
index a282698..e9cd97e 100644
--- a/kernel/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/Makefile
@@ -23,6 +23,17 @@  CFLAGS_REMOVE_cgroup-debug.o = -pg
 CFLAGS_REMOVE_irq_work.o = -pg
 endif
 
+# Prevents flicker of uninteresting __do_softirq()/__local_bh_disable_ip()
+# in coverage traces.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_softirq.o := n
+# These are called from save_stack_trace() on slub debug path,
+# and produce insane amounts of uninteresting coverage.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_module.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_extable.o := n
+# Don't self-instrument.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_kcov.o := n
+KASAN_SANITIZE_kcov.o := n
+
 obj-y += sched/
 obj-y += power/
 obj-y += cpu/
@@ -80,6 +91,7 @@  obj-$(CONFIG_AUDITSYSCALL) += auditsc.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_AUDIT_WATCH) += audit_watch.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_AUDIT_TREE) += audit_tree.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_GCOV_KERNEL) += gcov/
+obj-$(CONFIG_KCOV) += kcov.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_KPROBES) += kprobes.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_KGDB) += debug/
 obj-$(CONFIG_DETECT_HUNG_TASK) += hung_task.o
diff --git a/kernel/exit.c b/kernel/exit.c
index 2715dc1..1de682a 100644
--- a/kernel/exit.c
+++ b/kernel/exit.c
@@ -54,6 +54,7 @@ 
 #include <linux/oom.h>
 #include <linux/writeback.h>
 #include <linux/shm.h>
+#include <linux/kcov.h>
 
 #include <bc/misc.h>
 
@@ -731,6 +732,7 @@  void do_exit(long code)
 	int group_dead;
 
 	profile_task_exit(tsk);
+	kcov_task_exit(tsk);
 
 	WARN_ON(blk_needs_flush_plug(tsk));
 
diff --git a/kernel/fork.c b/kernel/fork.c
index 1e7b897..3df6c91 100644
--- a/kernel/fork.c
+++ b/kernel/fork.c
@@ -56,6 +56,7 @@ 
 #include <linux/acct.h>
 #include <linux/tsacct_kern.h>
 #include <linux/cn_proc.h>
+#include <linux/kcov.h>
 #include <linux/freezer.h>
 #include <linux/delayacct.h>
 #include <linux/taskstats_kern.h>
@@ -344,6 +345,8 @@  static struct task_struct *dup_task_struct(struct task_struct *orig)
 
 	account_kernel_stack(ti, 1);
 
+	kcov_task_init(tsk);
+
 	return tsk;
 
 free_ti:
diff --git a/kernel/kcov.c b/kernel/kcov.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9ea7a05
--- /dev/null
+++ b/kernel/kcov.c
@@ -0,0 +1,274 @@ 
+#define pr_fmt(fmt) "kcov: " fmt
+
+#include <linux/compiler.h>
+#include <linux/types.h>
+#include <linux/file.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/printk.h>
+#include <linux/sched.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/spinlock.h>
+#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
+#include <linux/debugfs.h>
+#include <linux/uaccess.h>
+#include <linux/kcov.h>
+
+/*
+ * kcov descriptor (one per opened debugfs file).
+ * State transitions of the descriptor:
+ *  - initial state after open()
+ *  - then there must be a single ioctl(KCOV_INIT_TRACE) call
+ *  - then, mmap() call (several calls are allowed but not useful)
+ *  - then, repeated enable/disable for a task (only one task a time allowed)
+ */
+struct kcov {
+	/*
+	 * Reference counter. We keep one for:
+	 *  - opened file descriptor
+	 *  - task with enabled coverage (we can't unwire it from another task)
+	 */
+	atomic_t		refcount;
+	/* The lock protects mode, size, area and t. */
+	spinlock_t		lock;
+	enum kcov_mode		mode;
+	/* Size of arena (in long's for KCOV_MODE_TRACE). */
+	unsigned		size;
+	/* Coverage buffer shared with user space. */
+	void			*area;
+	/* Task for which we collect coverage, or NULL. */
+	struct task_struct	*t;
+};
+
+/*
+ * Entry point from instrumented code.
+ * This is called once per basic-block/edge.
+ */
+void __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc(void)
+{
+	struct task_struct *t;
+	enum kcov_mode mode;
+
+	t = current;
+	/*
+	 * We are interested in code coverage as a function of a syscall inputs,
+	 * so we ignore code executed in interrupts.
+	 */
+	if (!t || in_interrupt())
+		return;
+	mode = READ_ONCE(t->kcov_mode);
+	if (mode == KCOV_MODE_TRACE) {
+		unsigned long *area;
+		unsigned long pos;
+
+		/*
+		 * There is some code that runs in interrupts but for which
+		 * in_interrupt() returns false (e.g. preempt_schedule_irq()).
+		 * READ_ONCE()/barrier() effectively provides load-acquire wrt
+		 * interrupts, there are paired barrier()/WRITE_ONCE() in
+		 * kcov_ioctl_locked().
+		 */
+		barrier();
+		area = t->kcov_area;
+		/* The first word is number of subsequent PCs. */
+		pos = READ_ONCE(area[0]) + 1;
+		if (likely(pos < t->kcov_size)) {
+			area[pos] = _RET_IP_;
+			WRITE_ONCE(area[0], pos);
+		}
+	}
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__sanitizer_cov_trace_pc);
+
+static void kcov_get(struct kcov *kcov)
+{
+	atomic_inc(&kcov->refcount);
+}
+
+static void kcov_put(struct kcov *kcov)
+{
+	if (atomic_dec_and_test(&kcov->refcount)) {
+		vfree(kcov->area);
+		kfree(kcov);
+	}
+}
+
+void kcov_task_init(struct task_struct *t)
+{
+	t->kcov_mode = KCOV_MODE_DISABLED;
+	t->kcov_size = 0;
+	t->kcov_area = NULL;
+	t->kcov = NULL;
+}
+
+void kcov_task_exit(struct task_struct *t)
+{
+	struct kcov *kcov;
+
+	kcov = t->kcov;
+	if (kcov == NULL)
+		return;
+	spin_lock(&kcov->lock);
+	if (WARN_ON(kcov->t != t)) {
+		spin_unlock(&kcov->lock);
+		return;
+	}
+	/* Just to not leave dangling references behind. */
+	kcov_task_init(t);
+	kcov->t = NULL;
+	spin_unlock(&kcov->lock);
+	kcov_put(kcov);
+}
+
+static int kcov_mmap(struct file *filep, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
+{
+	int res = 0;
+	void *area;
+	struct kcov *kcov = vma->vm_file->private_data;
+	unsigned long size, off;
+	struct page *page;
+
+	area = vmalloc_user(vma->vm_end - vma->vm_start);
+	if (!area)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	spin_lock(&kcov->lock);
+	size = kcov->size * sizeof(unsigned long);
+	if (kcov->mode == KCOV_MODE_DISABLED || vma->vm_pgoff != 0 ||
+	    vma->vm_end - vma->vm_start != size) {
+		res = -EINVAL;
+		goto exit;
+	}
+	if (!kcov->area) {
+		kcov->area = area;
+		vma->vm_flags |= VM_DONTEXPAND;
+		spin_unlock(&kcov->lock);
+		for (off = 0; off < size; off += PAGE_SIZE) {
+			page = vmalloc_to_page(kcov->area + off);
+			if (vm_insert_page(vma, vma->vm_start + off, page))
+				WARN_ONCE(1, "vm_insert_page() failed");
+		}
+		return 0;
+	}
+exit:
+	spin_unlock(&kcov->lock);
+	vfree(area);
+	return res;
+}
+
+static int kcov_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *filep)
+{
+	struct kcov *kcov;
+
+	kcov = kzalloc(sizeof(*kcov), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!kcov)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	atomic_set(&kcov->refcount, 1);
+	spin_lock_init(&kcov->lock);
+	filep->private_data = kcov;
+	return nonseekable_open(inode, filep);
+}
+
+static int kcov_close(struct inode *inode, struct file *filep)
+{
+	kcov_put(filep->private_data);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int kcov_ioctl_locked(struct kcov *kcov, unsigned int cmd,
+			     unsigned long arg)
+{
+	struct task_struct *t;
+	unsigned long size, unused;
+
+	switch (cmd) {
+	case KCOV_INIT_TRACE:
+		/*
+		 * Enable kcov in trace mode and setup buffer size.
+		 * Must happen before anything else.
+		 */
+		if (kcov->mode != KCOV_MODE_DISABLED)
+			return -EBUSY;
+		/*
+		 * Size must be at least 2 to hold current position and one PC.
+		 * Later we allocate size * sizeof(unsigned long) memory,
+		 * that must not overflow.
+		 */
+		size = arg;
+		if (size < 2 || size > INT_MAX / sizeof(unsigned long))
+			return -EINVAL;
+		kcov->size = size;
+		kcov->mode = KCOV_MODE_TRACE;
+		return 0;
+	case KCOV_ENABLE:
+		/*
+		 * Enable coverage for the current task.
+		 * At this point user must have been enabled trace mode,
+		 * and mmapped the file. Coverage collection is disabled only
+		 * at task exit or voluntary by KCOV_DISABLE. After that it can
+		 * be enabled for another task.
+		 */
+		unused = arg;
+		if (unused != 0 || kcov->mode == KCOV_MODE_DISABLED ||
+		    kcov->area == NULL)
+			return -EINVAL;
+		if (kcov->t != NULL)
+			return -EBUSY;
+		t = current;
+		/* Cache in task struct for performance. */
+		t->kcov_size = kcov->size;
+		t->kcov_area = kcov->area;
+		/* See comment in __sanitizer_cov_trace_pc(). */
+		barrier();
+		WRITE_ONCE(t->kcov_mode, kcov->mode);
+		t->kcov = kcov;
+		kcov->t = t;
+		/* This is put either in kcov_task_exit() or in KCOV_DISABLE. */
+		kcov_get(kcov);
+		return 0;
+	case KCOV_DISABLE:
+		/* Disable coverage for the current task. */
+		unused = arg;
+		if (unused != 0 || current->kcov != kcov)
+			return -EINVAL;
+		t = current;
+		if (WARN_ON(kcov->t != t))
+			return -EINVAL;
+		kcov_task_init(t);
+		kcov->t = NULL;
+		kcov_put(kcov);
+		return 0;
+	default:
+		return -ENOTTY;
+	}
+}
+
+static long kcov_ioctl(struct file *filep, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg)
+{
+	struct kcov *kcov;
+	int res;
+
+	kcov = filep->private_data;
+	spin_lock(&kcov->lock);
+	res = kcov_ioctl_locked(kcov, cmd, arg);
+	spin_unlock(&kcov->lock);
+	return res;
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations kcov_fops = {
+	.open		= kcov_open,
+	.unlocked_ioctl	= kcov_ioctl,
+	.mmap		= kcov_mmap,
+	.release        = kcov_close,
+};
+
+static int __init kcov_init(void)
+{
+	if (!debugfs_create_file("kcov", 0600, NULL, NULL, &kcov_fops)) {
+		pr_err("failed to create kcov in debugfs\n");
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+device_initcall(kcov_init);
diff --git a/kernel/sched/Makefile b/kernel/sched/Makefile
index deaf90e..e85375d 100644
--- a/kernel/sched/Makefile
+++ b/kernel/sched/Makefile
@@ -2,6 +2,10 @@  ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_TRACER
 CFLAGS_REMOVE_clock.o = -pg
 endif
 
+# These files are disabled because they produce non-interesting flaky coverage
+# that is not a function of syscall inputs. E.g. involuntary context switches.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
+
 ifneq ($(CONFIG_SCHED_OMIT_FRAME_POINTER),y)
 # According to Alan Modra <alan@linuxcare.com.au>, the -fno-omit-frame-pointer is
 # needed for x86 only.  Why this used to be enabled for all architectures is beyond
diff --git a/lib/Kconfig.debug b/lib/Kconfig.debug
index 3376ae3..e35458e 100644
--- a/lib/Kconfig.debug
+++ b/lib/Kconfig.debug
@@ -162,6 +162,27 @@  config DEBUG_KERNEL
 	  Say Y here if you are developing drivers or trying to debug and
 	  identify kernel problems.
 
+config ARCH_HAS_KCOV
+	bool
+	help
+	  KCOV does not have any arch-specific code, but currently it is enabled
+	  only for x86_64. KCOV requires testing on other archs, and most likely
+	  disabling of instrumentation for some early boot code.
+
+config KCOV
+	bool "Code coverage for fuzzing"
+	depends on ARCH_HAS_KCOV
+	select DEBUG_FS
+	help
+	  KCOV exposes kernel code coverage information in a form suitable
+	  for coverage-guided fuzzing (randomized testing).
+
+	  If RANDOMIZE_BASE is enabled, PC values will not be stable across
+	  different machines and across reboots. If you need stable PC values,
+	  disable RANDOMIZE_BASE.
+
+	  For more details, see Documentation/kcov.txt.
+
 config DEBUG_SHIRQ
 	bool "Debug shared IRQ handlers"
 	depends on DEBUG_KERNEL && GENERIC_HARDIRQS
diff --git a/lib/Makefile b/lib/Makefile
index c365270..a10b417 100644
--- a/lib/Makefile
+++ b/lib/Makefile
@@ -7,6 +7,18 @@  ORIG_CFLAGS := $(KBUILD_CFLAGS)
 KBUILD_CFLAGS = $(subst -pg,,$(ORIG_CFLAGS))
 endif
 
+# These files are disabled because they produce lots of non-interesting and/or
+# flaky coverage that is not a function of syscall inputs. For example,
+# rbtree can be global and individual rotations don't correlate with inputs.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_string.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_rbtree.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_list_debug.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_debugobjects.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_dynamic_debug.o := n
+# Kernel does not boot if we instrument this file as it uses custom calling
+# convention (see CONFIG_ARCH_HWEIGHT_CFLAGS).
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_hweight.o := n
+
 lib-y := ctype.o string.o vsprintf.o cmdline.o \
 	 rbtree.o radix-tree.o dump_stack.o timerqueue.o\
 	 idr.o int_sqrt.o extable.o \
diff --git a/mm/Makefile b/mm/Makefile
index ea2a36e..82d2d51 100644
--- a/mm/Makefile
+++ b/mm/Makefile
@@ -5,6 +5,21 @@ 
 KASAN_SANITIZE_slab_common.o := n
 KASAN_SANITIZE_slub.o := n
 
+# These files are disabled because they produce non-interesting and/or
+# flaky coverage that is not a function of syscall inputs. E.g. slab is out of
+# free pages, or a task is migrated between nodes.
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_slab_common.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_slob.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_slab.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_slub.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_page_alloc.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_debug-pagealloc.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_kmemleak.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_kmemcheck.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_memcontrol.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_mmzone.o := n
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT_vmstat.o := n
+
 mmu-y			:= nommu.o
 mmu-$(CONFIG_MMU)	:= highmem.o madvise.o memory.o mincore.o \
 			   mlock.o mmap.o mprotect.o mremap.o msync.o rmap.o \
diff --git a/mm/kasan/Makefile b/mm/kasan/Makefile
index bd837b8..d385476 100644
--- a/mm/kasan/Makefile
+++ b/mm/kasan/Makefile
@@ -1,5 +1,7 @@ 
 KASAN_SANITIZE := n
 
+KCOV_INSTRUMENT := n
+
 CFLAGS_REMOVE_kasan.o = -pg
 # Function splitter causes unnecessary splits in __asan_load1/__asan_store1
 # see: https://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=63533
diff --git a/scripts/Makefile.lib b/scripts/Makefile.lib
index b188171..01d6bfa 100644
--- a/scripts/Makefile.lib
+++ b/scripts/Makefile.lib
@@ -129,6 +129,12 @@  _c_flags += $(if $(patsubst n%,, \
 		$(CFLAGS_KASAN))
 endif
 
+ifeq ($(CONFIG_KCOV),y)
+_c_flags += $(if $(patsubst n%,, \
+	$(KCOV_INSTRUMENT_$(basetarget).o)$(KCOV_INSTRUMENT)y), \
+	$(CFLAGS_KCOV))
+endif
+
 # If building the kernel in a separate objtree expand all occurrences
 # of -Idir to -I$(srctree)/dir except for absolute paths (starting with '/').