[Devel,rh7,33/39] rbtree: Make lockless searches non-fatal

Submitted by Andrey Ryabinin on Sept. 14, 2017, 4:58 p.m.

Details

Message ID 20170914165826.29420-2-aryabinin@virtuozzo.com
State New
Series "Series without cover letter"
Headers show

Commit Message

Andrey Ryabinin Sept. 14, 2017, 4:58 p.m.
From: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>

Change the insert and erase code such that lockless searches are
non-fatal.

In and of itself an rbtree cannot be correctly searched while
in-modification, we can however provide weaker guarantees that will
allow the rbtree to be used in conjunction with other techniques, such
as latches; see 9b0fd802e8c0 ("seqcount: Add raw_write_seqcount_latch()").

For this to work we need the following guarantees from the rbtree
code:

 1) a lockless reader must not see partial stores, this would allow it
    to observe nodes that are invalid memory.

 2) there must not be (temporary) loops in the tree structure in the
    modifier's program order, this would cause a lookup which
    interrupts the modifier to get stuck indefinitely.

For 1) we must use WRITE_ONCE() for all updates to the tree structure;
in particular this patch only does rb_{left,right} as those are the
only element required for simple searches.

It generates slightly worse code, probably because volatile. But in
pointer chasing heavy code a few instructions more should not matter.

For 2) I have carefully audited the code and drawn every intermediate
link state and not found a loop.

Cc: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@efficios.com>
Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>
Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com>
Cc: David Woodhouse <David.Woodhouse@intel.com>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
Reviewed-by: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@infradead.org>
Signed-off-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>

https://jira.sw.ru/browse/PSBM-69081
(cherry picked from commit d72da4a4d973d8a0a0d3c97e7cdebf287fbe3a99)
Signed-off-by: Andrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
---
 include/linux/rbtree.h           | 16 +++++++--
 include/linux/rbtree_augmented.h | 21 +++++++----
 lib/rbtree.c                     | 76 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------
 3 files changed, 81 insertions(+), 32 deletions(-)

Patch hide | download patch | download mbox

diff --git a/include/linux/rbtree.h b/include/linux/rbtree.h
index 57e75ae9910f..829c5a8b41c0 100644
--- a/include/linux/rbtree.h
+++ b/include/linux/rbtree.h
@@ -31,6 +31,7 @@ 
 
 #include <linux/kernel.h>
 #include <linux/stddef.h>
+#include <linux/rcupdate.h>
 
 struct rb_node {
 	unsigned long  __rb_parent_color;
@@ -73,11 +74,11 @@  extern struct rb_node *rb_first_postorder(const struct rb_root *);
 extern struct rb_node *rb_next_postorder(const struct rb_node *);
 
 /* Fast replacement of a single node without remove/rebalance/add/rebalance */
-extern void rb_replace_node(struct rb_node *victim, struct rb_node *new, 
+extern void rb_replace_node(struct rb_node *victim, struct rb_node *new,
 			    struct rb_root *root);
 
-static inline void rb_link_node(struct rb_node * node, struct rb_node * parent,
-				struct rb_node ** rb_link)
+static inline void rb_link_node(struct rb_node *node, struct rb_node *parent,
+				struct rb_node **rb_link)
 {
 	node->__rb_parent_color = (unsigned long)parent;
 	node->rb_left = node->rb_right = NULL;
@@ -85,6 +86,15 @@  static inline void rb_link_node(struct rb_node * node, struct rb_node * parent,
 	*rb_link = node;
 }
 
+static inline void rb_link_node_rcu(struct rb_node *node, struct rb_node *parent,
+				    struct rb_node **rb_link)
+{
+	node->__rb_parent_color = (unsigned long)parent;
+	node->rb_left = node->rb_right = NULL;
+
+	rcu_assign_pointer(*rb_link, node);
+}
+
 #define rb_entry_safe(ptr, type, member) \
 	({ typeof(ptr) ____ptr = (ptr); \
 	   ____ptr ? rb_entry(____ptr, type, member) : NULL; \
diff --git a/include/linux/rbtree_augmented.h b/include/linux/rbtree_augmented.h
index fea49b5da12a..1690f2612449 100644
--- a/include/linux/rbtree_augmented.h
+++ b/include/linux/rbtree_augmented.h
@@ -113,11 +113,11 @@  __rb_change_child(struct rb_node *old, struct rb_node *new,
 {
 	if (parent) {
 		if (parent->rb_left == old)
-			parent->rb_left = new;
+			WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_left, new);
 		else
-			parent->rb_right = new;
+			WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_right, new);
 	} else
-		root->rb_node = new;
+		WRITE_ONCE(root->rb_node, new);
 }
 
 extern void __rb_erase_color(struct rb_node *parent, struct rb_root *root,
@@ -127,7 +127,8 @@  static __always_inline struct rb_node *
 __rb_erase_augmented(struct rb_node *node, struct rb_root *root,
 		     const struct rb_augment_callbacks *augment)
 {
-	struct rb_node *child = node->rb_right, *tmp = node->rb_left;
+	struct rb_node *child = node->rb_right;
+	struct rb_node *tmp = node->rb_left;
 	struct rb_node *parent, *rebalance;
 	unsigned long pc;
 
@@ -157,6 +158,7 @@  __rb_erase_augmented(struct rb_node *node, struct rb_root *root,
 		tmp = parent;
 	} else {
 		struct rb_node *successor = child, *child2;
+
 		tmp = child->rb_left;
 		if (!tmp) {
 			/*
@@ -170,6 +172,7 @@  __rb_erase_augmented(struct rb_node *node, struct rb_root *root,
 			 */
 			parent = successor;
 			child2 = successor->rb_right;
+
 			augment->copy(node, successor);
 		} else {
 			/*
@@ -191,19 +194,23 @@  __rb_erase_augmented(struct rb_node *node, struct rb_root *root,
 				successor = tmp;
 				tmp = tmp->rb_left;
 			} while (tmp);
-			parent->rb_left = child2 = successor->rb_right;
-			successor->rb_right = child;
+			child2 = successor->rb_right;
+			WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_left, child2);
+			WRITE_ONCE(successor->rb_right, child);
 			rb_set_parent(child, successor);
+
 			augment->copy(node, successor);
 			augment->propagate(parent, successor);
 		}
 
-		successor->rb_left = tmp = node->rb_left;
+		tmp = node->rb_left;
+		WRITE_ONCE(successor->rb_left, tmp);
 		rb_set_parent(tmp, successor);
 
 		pc = node->__rb_parent_color;
 		tmp = __rb_parent(pc);
 		__rb_change_child(node, successor, tmp, root);
+
 		if (child2) {
 			successor->__rb_parent_color = pc;
 			rb_set_parent_color(child2, parent, RB_BLACK);
diff --git a/lib/rbtree.c b/lib/rbtree.c
index 65f4effd117f..6a9b0121453b 100644
--- a/lib/rbtree.c
+++ b/lib/rbtree.c
@@ -44,6 +44,30 @@ 
  *  parentheses and have some accompanying text comment.
  */
 
+/*
+ * Notes on lockless lookups:
+ *
+ * All stores to the tree structure (rb_left and rb_right) must be done using
+ * WRITE_ONCE(). And we must not inadvertently cause (temporary) loops in the
+ * tree structure as seen in program order.
+ *
+ * These two requirements will allow lockless iteration of the tree -- not
+ * correct iteration mind you, tree rotations are not atomic so a lookup might
+ * miss entire subtrees.
+ *
+ * But they do guarantee that any such traversal will only see valid elements
+ * and that it will indeed complete -- does not get stuck in a loop.
+ *
+ * It also guarantees that if the lookup returns an element it is the 'correct'
+ * one. But not returning an element does _NOT_ mean it's not present.
+ *
+ * NOTE:
+ *
+ * Stores to __rb_parent_color are not important for simple lookups so those
+ * are left undone as of now. Nor did I check for loops involving parent
+ * pointers.
+ */
+
 static inline void rb_set_black(struct rb_node *rb)
 {
 	rb->__rb_parent_color |= RB_BLACK;
@@ -129,8 +153,9 @@  __rb_insert(struct rb_node *node, struct rb_root *root,
 				 * This still leaves us in violation of 4), the
 				 * continuation into Case 3 will fix that.
 				 */
-				parent->rb_right = tmp = node->rb_left;
-				node->rb_left = parent;
+				tmp = node->rb_left;
+				WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_right, tmp);
+				WRITE_ONCE(node->rb_left, parent);
 				if (tmp)
 					rb_set_parent_color(tmp, parent,
 							    RB_BLACK);
@@ -149,8 +174,8 @@  __rb_insert(struct rb_node *node, struct rb_root *root,
 			 *     /                 \
 			 *    n                   U
 			 */
-			gparent->rb_left = tmp;  /* == parent->rb_right */
-			parent->rb_right = gparent;
+			WRITE_ONCE(gparent->rb_left, tmp); /* == parent->rb_right */
+			WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_right, gparent);
 			if (tmp)
 				rb_set_parent_color(tmp, gparent, RB_BLACK);
 			__rb_rotate_set_parents(gparent, parent, root, RB_RED);
@@ -171,8 +196,9 @@  __rb_insert(struct rb_node *node, struct rb_root *root,
 			tmp = parent->rb_left;
 			if (node == tmp) {
 				/* Case 2 - right rotate at parent */
-				parent->rb_left = tmp = node->rb_right;
-				node->rb_right = parent;
+				tmp = node->rb_right;
+				WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_left, tmp);
+				WRITE_ONCE(node->rb_right, parent);
 				if (tmp)
 					rb_set_parent_color(tmp, parent,
 							    RB_BLACK);
@@ -183,8 +209,8 @@  __rb_insert(struct rb_node *node, struct rb_root *root,
 			}
 
 			/* Case 3 - left rotate at gparent */
-			gparent->rb_right = tmp;  /* == parent->rb_left */
-			parent->rb_left = gparent;
+			WRITE_ONCE(gparent->rb_right, tmp); /* == parent->rb_left */
+			WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_left, gparent);
 			if (tmp)
 				rb_set_parent_color(tmp, gparent, RB_BLACK);
 			__rb_rotate_set_parents(gparent, parent, root, RB_RED);
@@ -224,8 +250,9 @@  ____rb_erase_color(struct rb_node *parent, struct rb_root *root,
 				 *      / \         / \
 				 *     Sl  Sr      N   Sl
 				 */
-				parent->rb_right = tmp1 = sibling->rb_left;
-				sibling->rb_left = parent;
+				tmp1 = sibling->rb_left;
+				WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_right, tmp1);
+				WRITE_ONCE(sibling->rb_left, parent);
 				rb_set_parent_color(tmp1, parent, RB_BLACK);
 				__rb_rotate_set_parents(parent, sibling, root,
 							RB_RED);
@@ -275,9 +302,10 @@  ____rb_erase_color(struct rb_node *parent, struct rb_root *root,
 				 *                       \
 				 *                        Sr
 				 */
-				sibling->rb_left = tmp1 = tmp2->rb_right;
-				tmp2->rb_right = sibling;
-				parent->rb_right = tmp2;
+				tmp1 = tmp2->rb_right;
+				WRITE_ONCE(sibling->rb_left, tmp1);
+				WRITE_ONCE(tmp2->rb_right, sibling);
+				WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_right, tmp2);
 				if (tmp1)
 					rb_set_parent_color(tmp1, sibling,
 							    RB_BLACK);
@@ -297,8 +325,9 @@  ____rb_erase_color(struct rb_node *parent, struct rb_root *root,
 			 *        / \         / \
 			 *      (sl) sr      N  (sl)
 			 */
-			parent->rb_right = tmp2 = sibling->rb_left;
-			sibling->rb_left = parent;
+			tmp2 = sibling->rb_left;
+			WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_right, tmp2);
+			WRITE_ONCE(sibling->rb_left, parent);
 			rb_set_parent_color(tmp1, sibling, RB_BLACK);
 			if (tmp2)
 				rb_set_parent(tmp2, parent);
@@ -310,8 +339,9 @@  ____rb_erase_color(struct rb_node *parent, struct rb_root *root,
 			sibling = parent->rb_left;
 			if (rb_is_red(sibling)) {
 				/* Case 1 - right rotate at parent */
-				parent->rb_left = tmp1 = sibling->rb_right;
-				sibling->rb_right = parent;
+				tmp1 = sibling->rb_right;
+				WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_left, tmp1);
+				WRITE_ONCE(sibling->rb_right, parent);
 				rb_set_parent_color(tmp1, parent, RB_BLACK);
 				__rb_rotate_set_parents(parent, sibling, root,
 							RB_RED);
@@ -336,9 +366,10 @@  ____rb_erase_color(struct rb_node *parent, struct rb_root *root,
 					break;
 				}
 				/* Case 3 - right rotate at sibling */
-				sibling->rb_right = tmp1 = tmp2->rb_left;
-				tmp2->rb_left = sibling;
-				parent->rb_left = tmp2;
+				tmp1 = tmp2->rb_left;
+				WRITE_ONCE(sibling->rb_right, tmp1);
+				WRITE_ONCE(tmp2->rb_left, sibling);
+				WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_left, tmp2);
 				if (tmp1)
 					rb_set_parent_color(tmp1, sibling,
 							    RB_BLACK);
@@ -347,8 +378,9 @@  ____rb_erase_color(struct rb_node *parent, struct rb_root *root,
 				sibling = tmp2;
 			}
 			/* Case 4 - left rotate at parent + color flips */
-			parent->rb_left = tmp2 = sibling->rb_right;
-			sibling->rb_right = parent;
+			tmp2 = sibling->rb_right;
+			WRITE_ONCE(parent->rb_left, tmp2);
+			WRITE_ONCE(sibling->rb_right, parent);
 			rb_set_parent_color(tmp1, sibling, RB_BLACK);
 			if (tmp2)
 				rb_set_parent(tmp2, parent);